Highlights

EOS-01: Earth Observation Satellite for weather, ISRO successfully launched all-weather observation satellite from Satish Dhawan Space Centre (SDSC) SHAR, Sriharikota on 7 Nov 2020. The EOS-01 satellite will be launched through Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle (PSLV-C49). This is the 51st mission of PSLV-C49.

Points To Note

  • This is the 51st mission of PSLV-C49
  • Earth Observation satellite would also carry 9 other customer satellites into space.
  • It is an earth observation satellite intended for applications in agriculture, forestry and disaster management support.
  • This will be India’s first mission from her launch pad at Sriharikota in 2020 during Pandemic.

EOS-01 Satellite

It has been equipped with the synthetic aperture radar of an enviable resolution.  The prominent applications of the EOS-01 is include in agriculture sector, forest sector and natural disaster management support. The operational life of the satellite will be of 5 years (2020-2025) and it will operate to provide crucial data.

Earth observation satellites (EOS)

Earth observation satellites are equipped with remote sensing technology. Earth observation means gathering of information about Earth’s physical, chemical and biological systems. Many ISRO earth observation satellites have been employed in the sun-synchronous orbit. Some of the satellites launched by ISRO include

  • RESOURCESAT- 2
  • CARTOSAT-1 (or IRS-P5)
  • CARTOSAT-2 ( sun-synchronous orbit)
  • CARTOSAT-2A
  • CARTOSAT-2B
  • RISAT-1 ( Radar Imaging Satellite 1)
  • RISAT-2 (Indian radar reconnaissance satellite )
  • OCEANSAT-2 ,
  • Megha-Tropiques (to study the water cycle in the tropical atmosphere),
  • SARAL ( to study ocean circulation and sea surface elevation)
  • SCATSAT-1 (providing weather forecasting, cyclone prediction, and tracking services)
  • INSAT-3DR.

About RISAT-2BR1

RISAT-2BR1 is the peer satellite and the previous mission by ISRO that was launched from the national spaceport in December 2019.

9 Customer Satellites

9 Customer Satellites are being launched under a commercial agreement with NewSpace India Limite of Department of Space.

NewSpace India Limited

In 2019, NewSpace India Limited was incorporated under the administrative control of Department of Space. The organisation is the commercial arm of ISRO. The primary function of the NewSpace India is to enable the Indian industries to take up high technology space related activities. Production of

  • Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle (PSLV) and
  • Small Satellite Launch Vehicle (SSLV) through industry are the major business area of NewSpace India Limited.

Benefits of the satellite

These satellite uses radar imaging system, it is unaffected by clouds, fog or lack of sunlight. All the 3 satellites, EOS-01 and RISAT-2B, RISAT-2BR1 use X-band radars to monitor urban landscape, forest land and imaging agricultural land.

New Nomenclature of ISRO

ISRO has named this satellite as EOS-1. With this, ISRO is moving towards a new naming system for its earth observation satellites. Till now ISRO named its satellites thematically, that is, based on the purpose they are being launched. For instance, the CARTOSAT series were launched to provide data on land topography. On the flip side, the OCEANSAT was launched for observations over sea.

What is new about the PSLV being used in the launch?

Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle being used for the launch is a new variant. This version of PSLV does not become a waste after putting the satellite in the orbit. Instead it can be used as an orbital platform for the other onboard instruments. In other words, the 4th stage of the PSLV can be used as another satellite for a lifespan of 6 months.

Backdrop

In January 2020, Indian Space Research Organisation sent communication satellite GSAT-30. It is a telecommunications satellite. GSAT-30 was launched from French Guiana using an Ariane rocket.

After this, the launches of ISRO were delayed due to pandemic and nationwide lockdown. This included the Aditya L1 mission. Aditya L1 is the first solar exploratory mission by ISRO to the sun. the unmanned Gaganyaan was also postponed.

Small Satellite Launch Vehicle

Small Satellite Launch Vehicle (SSLV) is under construction. The specialty of the rocket is that it can be assembled in 2 days. It is capable of dropping the payloads at differential heights. The international demand for the rocket is more according to the ISRO chairman Dr Kailasavadivoo Sivan.

ISRO to launch All-weather Earth Observation Satellite ISRO to launch All-weather Earth Observation Satellite