For the first time, An Team of scientists across the world working on the Event Horizon Telescope have created an image showing the magnetic field around a black hole in the universe. The black hole is located in M87 galaxy (Messier 87).
About Black Hole Magnetic Field Image
In the year 2019, Astronomers working on the Event Horizon Telescope captured the first image of the shadow of the same black hole. The shadow of the black hole is a dark region that surrounds the black hole. It is 3-times the diameter of the black hole. The shadow is the point beyond which even light cannot escape.
Now scientists have analyzed the polarization of light in the bright region around the shadow of the black hole. According to the analysis, some matter is sucked into the black hole and the other matter is blasted out in jets. This blasted out matter is hot and violent. It creates large amounts of light as the matter here is accelerated.
The conclusion of the analysis by scientists is that only presence of strong magnetic fields shall polarize this huge volume of light energy.
The new image will help to understand how powerful jets of radiation are emitted by black holes.
Polarization of light
It is a phenomenon caused due to the electromagnetic property of light. The Light waves vibrate in more than one plane and is referred to as unpolarized light wave. The polarized light waves On the other hand, are waves in which vibrations occur in a single plane.
As light waves are electromagnetic in nature, only strong magnetic field can polarize light waves.
About Messier 87
It is a supergiant elliptical galaxy and has more than 15,000 globular clusters. It is larger in size as compared to the Milky Way that has only 150 globular clusters. The Messier 87 is one of the brightest radio sources. It was discovered by Charles Messier in the year 1781 and named after Messier. It is 53 million light years away from the Planet Earth.
About Event Horizon Telescope
It is a telescope array that consists of a global network of radio telescopes. The main observational targets of the telescope project are two black holes. Both black holes are located in Messier 87 and Sagittarius A. Just like Messier 87, Sagittarius A is also a radio source and is located at the Galactic Center of the Milky Way. Galactic Centre is the rotational center of the Milky Way galaxy.
Milky Way galaxy is at its brightest in 3-spots. They are Sagittarius, Scorpius and Ophiuchus. Milky Way galaxy is brighter in Sagittarius probably due to the presence of a black hole.
In the year 2020, Andrea Ghez and Reinhard Genzei received Nobel Prize in Physics. They discovered that black hole is the only explanation for the mass and brightness around Sagittarius A.