Highlights

Two Asian Nations, Armenia (landlocked country) and Azerbaijan (share border with Russia, Georgia, Iran turkey) recently signed a peace deal after the July 2020 Armenian–Azerbaijani clashes. According to the peace deal, both countries will maintain positions in the areas where they currently hold. This means a significance gain to Azerbaijan (Republic of Azerbaijan).

The peace deal between Armenia and Azerbaijan was brokered by Russian Federation. Both countries have been holding, military conflict for 6 weeks now. The peace deal was signed by 4th President of Azerbaijan Ilham Heydar oğlu Aliyev , Armenian Prime Minister Nikol Pashinyan and Russian President Vladimir Putin.

what is the new peace deal?

  • Azerbaijan has reclaimed over 15% – 20% of its lost territory in the july conflict. According to the new peace deal, both countries will maintain the current positions they are holding. Therefore, this will benefit Azerbaijan largely.
  • Under the peace agreement, Russian Federation peace keepers are to be deployed along the line of contact (LoC).
  • Around 2,000 Russian peacekeepers has been deployed for a period of 5 years.
  • The military operations of the both countries are to be suspended.
  • Russian peacekeepers are to be deployed in Lachin corridor and along the line of contact (LoC) in Nagorno-Karabakh (Artsakh) region. .
  • Both countries will exchange prisoners, Also the refugees and the internally displaced persons are to return to their regions.

July 2020 Armenian–Azerbaijani clashes

The recent clashes began on 12 July 2020 between the Armenian Armed Forces (AAF) and Azerbaijani Armed Forces (AAF). Result of the clash Both countries claim victory

Have there been other ceasefire agreements?

Even after the 1994 peace deal, the disputed region has been marked by regular exchanges of fire. In 2016, a 4-Day War (2016 Nagorno-Karabakh clashes or  April War) before Russia mediated peace. OSCE Minsk Group, chaired by United States of America, Russia and France, has tried to get the both countries to reach a peace agreement for several years. OSCE Minsk Group means Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe.

What is the role of Russia?

Russia plau an important role in this conflict and with both countries. Russia supplies heavy arms to both sides. Russia signed a military alliance with Armenia are known as CSTO. CSTO means Collective Security Treaty Organisation.

Nagorno-Karabakh Region

The Disputed region is internationally recognised as part of Azerbaijan. However, most of the region is controlled by Armenian separatists. Nagorno-Karabakh region has been part of the territory since the Soviet Era. As the USSR began to collapse, the regional parliament of Armenia voted for the region to transfer to Armenia.

Role of Ethnicity in the clashes

The Azermis claimed that the disputed region has been under their control. On the flip side, the Armenians claim that Karabakh region has been a part of the Armenian kingdom (Kingdom of Greater Armenia (331 BC–301 AD)). Presently, the disputed area has majority of Christian population. However, Azerbaijan is recognised internationally as a Muslim majority country.