On 9 Sep 2020, United Kingdom’s Internal Market Bill is a public bill passed. The United Kingdom Internal Market Bill aims to make trade arrangements for all 4 countries of United Kingdom- England, Scotland, and Wales and Northern Ireland after the Brexit transition period ends on 31 Dec 2020. Internal Market bill is designed to protect jobs and trade and wants to put common laws for trade across the whole of United Kingdom.

The Bill has become very controversial as it is said to violate the provisions of Withdrawal Agreement signed between United Kingdom and European Union.

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On 9 Nov 2020; the House of Lords of the United Kingdom voted against the controversial clauses of the Internal Market Bill (IMB). The House of Lords voted by 433 to 165 against the Internal Market Bill will allows United Kingdom to go back on the obligations made in the Withdrawal Agreement. The Internal Market Bill will not return to the house before the end of November this year.

Withdrawal Agreement

Brexit Withdrawal Agreement signed between the UK and EU stating the terms and conditions for leaving, commonly known as Brexit. Brexit Withdrawal Agreement was signed on 24 Jan 2020. The Agreement Drafted in November 2018 and revision in October 2019.

Why did the House of Lords of UK vote against the bill?

  • House of Lords of the United Kingdom voted against the Internal Market Bill due to many controversial clauses in the bill, mainly clauses 40 to 45. The House of Lords highlighted that the Market Bill tends to break international law.
  • Clause 42 allows the ministers to modify and disapply the exit procedures of Article 5 of the Northern Ireland Protocol (NIP).
  • Clause 43 also allows Secretary of State to interpret, modify and disapply Article 10 of the Northern Ireland Protocol.
  • Because of these clauses, the bill has been opposed at the House of Lords.

What is the Northern Ireland protocol?

The Protocol says that Northern Ireland will remain part of the customs territory of United Kingdom so if it signs a free trade deal with another country, Northern Irish goods would also be included. However, the Northern Ireland will have to follow some European Union rules to allow the free movement of goods into the Republic.


BREXIT is the withdrawal of the UK from the EU and the European Atomic Energy Community on 31 January 2020. In 2016, UK voted to leave EU in a referendum. After many negotiations, United Kingdom left European Union on 1 Feb 2020 but agreed on the withdrawal agreement before the final transition on 31 Dec 2020. Internal Market Bill of UK Internal Market Bill of UK