24 October observed as a World Polio Day every year. World Polio Day is celebrated to highlight the global efforts towards polio-free world. Also, the day encourages the use of oral polio vaccines.
According to World Health Organization, Since 1988 polio cases have decreased by 99 per cent. In 1988, there were 3.5 lakh reported cases. This has reduced to 22 reported cases in 2017. In 2020, 3 countries reported transmission of polio in the world. They were Afghanistan, Nigeria and Pakistan.
Theme for World Polio Day 2020: A win against Polio is a win for Global Health.
Poliomyelitis is an human infectious viral disease. It gets transmitted from human-tohuman through faecal and oral route. Also, the Poliomyelitis gets transmitted through common source such as contaminated water.
About Global Polio Eradication Initiative
In 1988, World Health Assembly (WHA) was launched the Global Polio Eradication Initiative to eradicate polio globally.
Types of Polio Strains
There are three 3 of polio strains namely type 1, type 2 and type 3. Type 2 is wild polio virus. It was eradicated in 1999. Type 3 is also called a wild polio virus. it was last reported in Nigeria in 2012. Both Type 2 and Type 3 have been declared as eradicated.
Polio Free India
In 2014, India received polio free certification from the World Health Organization. Elimination of Polio refers to reduction to zero of new cases of polio.
After Polio other diseases that were eradicated in India are Leprosy (Hansen’s disease) and Yaws.
Leprosy is a chronic, curable infectious disease mainly causing skin lesions and nerve damage.
Yaws is a chronic bacterial infection that affects the skin, bone and cartilage.
There are 2 types of vaccine to prevent Polio. They are Oral Polio Vaccine and Injectable Polio Vaccine . Oral Polio Vaccine is given orally at 6, 10 and 14 weeks. Booster dose is given at 16-24 months of age. Injectable Polio Vaccine was introduces as third dose universal Immunization Programme.
24 October World Polio Day