WHO had published its first list of antibiotic resistant priority pathogens that pose the greatest threat to human lives. These critical group and certain multi-drug resistant bacteria are found in Yamuna River (second largest tributary of Ganga) according to a group of researchers from Indian Institute of Technology Delhi.
The report conducted by the researchers says that sewage is the main source of their entry into the Yamuna. The researcher team studies 20 major sewer drains of the Yamuna over 2 seasons at 5 major locations of Delhi.
The researchers found Beta-lactamase (enzymes produced by bacteria, provide multi-resistance to β-lactam antibiotics) that help bacteria stay resistant to commonly used antibiotics.
Researcher study says that poor sewage collection and lack of sewage treatment plants and lack of connectivity between the drain are the main reasons for the deadly bacteria to develop in the river yamuna. There is a need for adequate infrastructure for sewage management in the region.
Presently, the existing treatment plants work on organic pollutants such as nitrogen, carbon and phosphorous. However, there is an emerging need to upgrade the sewage treatment plants in the india.
Researcher says that the resistance genes present in the river were Beta-lactamase genes and carbapenemadse. There are possibilities for rapid proliferation of different antibiotic resistant genes through horizontal gene transfer.
WHO list of ‘Priority Pathogens‘
WHO list was published in 2017. The list contains antibiotic resistant pathogens for which drugs are urgently needed. The list particularly highlights the Gram-negative bacteria that are resistant to multiple antibiotics.
The list is divided into 3 categories such as high, medium and critical priority.
The mist critical group include multi drug resistant bacteria such as Pseudomonas Bacteria, Acinetobacter Bacteria and other Enterobacteriaceae Bacteria such as Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Serratia and Proteus.
The 2nd and 3rd tiers in the list are of medium and high priority categories respectively. They cause common diseases such as food poisoning, gonorrhoea (sexually transmitted bacterial).
Pathogens listed Critical by WHO Pathogens listed Critical by WHO