United Nations is an international organization founded in 1945.
It is combination of countries made up of 193 Member States.
The mission and work of the United Nations (UN) are guided by the purposes and principles contained in its founding Charter.
2020 marks the 75th anniversary of the United Nations (UN).
Main organs of the UN are-
- General Assembly
- Security Council
- Economic and Social Council
- Trusteeship Council
- International Court of Justice
The UN Charter establishes the membership of the Security Council.
According to the UN Charter, Article 23,
“The United Nation Security Council shall consist of fifteen Members of the United Nations”.
•5 permanent members with veto power:
- Russian Federation
- United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland
- United States of America
•10 non-permanent members, five of which are elected each year by the General Assembly for a two-year term.
Originally, there were ii members of the Security Council: 5 permanent and 6 non-permanent members.
In 1963, the United Nation General Assembly recommended an amendment to the Charter to increase the membership of the United Nation Security Council (UNSC).
- 5 member from African and Asian States
- 1 member from Eastern European States
- 2 member from Latin American States
- 2 member from Western European and other States
India is set to enter the UN Security Council as a non-permanent member today for a two-year term (January 2021 to December 2022).
Victory in today’s election is assured because India is running unopposed for the Asia-Pacific seat.
New Delhi’s candidature was unanimously endorsed in June 2019 by the 55 members of the Asia-Pacific grouping, including China and Pakistan.
Canada, Ireland and Norway are vying for 2 seats in the Western Europe and other countries category.
Mexico (Russia) is the only candidate for the one Latin America and Caribbean seat.
Kenya and Djibouti Countries in East Africawill contest the seat available for the African group.
India has been elected as a non-permanent member of the Council 7 times in the past for the year-
WHY ITS IMPORTANT FOR INDIA?
The 2021-22 term will be critical for India which has been pushing efforts to reform the Security Council and seek permanent membership of the Council.
Support for India has been increasing with a number of countries advocating that the current UNSC does not represent the geo-political realities of the 21st Century.
Samman (respect), Samvad (dialogue), Sahayog (cooperation), Shanti (peace) Samriddhi (prosperity)
“Through this approach we seek to move towards a new orientation for reformed multilateral systems also known as norms,” India set to be UNSC non permanent member India set to be UNSC non permanent member